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[[Image:WelcometoSunnydale.jpg|thumb|right|250px|"Welcome to Sunnydale"]]
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{{Location
{{Quote|Sunnydale: come for the food, stay for the dismemberment.|Xander Harris|Beneath You}}
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|Title = Sunnydale
'''Sunnydale''' was a small Californian town, inhabited by the slayer [[Buffy Summers|Buffy Anne Summers]], until shortly after the empowering of all of the Potential Slayers and the town's destruction.
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|Image = WelcometoSunnydale.jpg
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|Caption = "Welcome to Sunnydale" sign.
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|First = "[[Welcome to the Hellmouth]]"
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|Last = ''[[Return to Sunnydale, Part Two]]''
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|Location = Southern California, United States
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|Type = Town
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|Alt Names = Valley of the Sun
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|Owner(s) = [[Richard Wilkins]] (founder and Mayor)
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}}
   
A college town, it housed the University of California at Sunnydale. The area of Sunnydale was a concentration of demonic energy, which had its focal point under the old Sunnydale High School, and was caused by this being the site of the Hellmouth, a gateway between the Earthly and Demonic dimensions. Sunnydale was destroyed and sank into the earth when a massive fissure opened beneath it. Fortunately for the inhabitants, the preceding sense of unrest on the streets and psychic disturbance in the town had already spurred most of the population to leave.
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{{Quote|Sunnydale: come for the food, stay for the dismemberment.|[[Alexander Harris]]|Beneath You}}
   
==Foundation==
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'''Sunnydale''' was a small Californian town, inhabited by the [[Slayer]] [[Buffy Summers]] and the [[Scooby Gang]].
   
Sunnydale was founded in 1899 on an area Spanish settlers had called '''"Boca del Infierno"''' - [[Hellmouth]] - where they had also built a Catholic mission for the conversion of the local Chumash tribe. The town's founder, [[Richard Wilkins]], intended the town to be a feeding ground for [[demons]], as part of his pact to achieve [[Ascension]]. After considering the names '''Happydale''' and '''Sunny Acres''', Wilkins came up with the name '''Sunnydale'''.
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The area of Sunnydale was a concentration of [[demon]]ic energy, which had its focal point under the [[Sunnydale High School]]; this was caused by its being the site of the [[Hellmouth]], a gateway between the [[Earth]] and demonic [[dimension]]s. A college town, it housed the [[University of California, Sunnydale|University of California at Sunnydale]].
   
==Environs==
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Sunnydale was destroyed and sank into the earth when a massive fissure opened beneath it. Fortunately for the inhabitants, the preceding sense of unrest on the streets and psychic disturbance in the town had already spurred most of the population to leave.
===Sunnydale itself===
 
[[File:Sunnydale.jpg|thumb|left]]
 
Sunnydale's size and surroundings are implausible, it is designed largely for comic effect and narrative convenience. During the first three seasons, Sunnydale's population is revealed to be 38,500,<ref>The "Welcome to Sunnydale" sign says 38,500 in two early episodes: ''School Hard'' (2.03) and ''Lovers Walk'' (3.08).</ref> very few [[Wikipedia:High school|high schools]],<ref>In ''Some Assembly Required'' (2.02), the three dead cheerleaders attended [[Fondren High]], which is "across town" from [[Sunnydale High]]. In ''Reptile Boy'' (2.05), Kent Preparatory School is mentioned. In ''Dead Man's Party'' (3.02) Joyce mentions a local all-girls' school named Miss Porter's. Yet in most episodes "the high school" refers specifically to Sunnydale High.</ref> forty-three churches,<ref>Giles is surprised at this figure in ''What's My Line, Part Two'' (2.10).</ref> a small private college<ref>Crestwood College is featured in ''Reptile Boy'' (2.05) but never mentioned again.</ref>, a zoo,<ref>there are three visits to the zoo in ''The Pack'' (1.06), including a class trip and one trip by Buffy on foot.</ref> a museum,<ref>The museum director who receives the box containing the demon Acathla in ''Becoming, Part One'' (2.21) refers to Giles as being "right here in Sunnydale".</ref> and one modest main street ([[Maple Court]]). Even so, it has twelve [[Wikipedia:Gothic fiction|gothic]] [[Wikipedia:Cemetery|cemeteries]].<ref>According to Giles in ''[[Revelations]]'' (3.07).</ref> These cemeteries are so heavily used that services are sometimes held at night.<ref>''Once More With Feeling'' (6.07).</ref>
 
   
In later seasons it is revealed that Sunnydale contains a campus of the [[Wikipedia:University of California|University of California]] system, as well as a profitable magic supply shop. The town, or a surrounding area, is also seen to include a large park containing a creek and a lake,<ref>''Once More, With Feeling'' (6.07).</ref> and one of its cemeteries is shown to be adjacent to a lake.<ref>''Help'' (7.04).</ref>[[File:P1010526.jpg|thumb|Sunnydale at night]]
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==History==
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===Prior to Buffy's arrival===
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Long before humans settled the area, an entrance to the Hellmouth existed at the site of the future town of Sunnydale. In ancient times, the mystical weapon [[Mʔ]] was used at the site of the Hellmouth "to kill the last pure demon that walked upon the Earth." After this, the scythe was hidden, and its [[Last Guardian|last]] of the [[Guardians]] remained, waiting in a pagan temple that would somehow remain unnoticed for centuries.<ref>"[[End of Days]]"</ref>
   
Sunnydale has a train station,<ref>Buffy finds dead bodies in the train in ''Crush'' (5.14).</ref> a bus station,<ref>The bus station is shown in ''Inca Mummy Girl'' (2.04), ''What's My Line, Part One'' (2.09), and ''Showtime'' (7.11).</ref> a small airport,<ref>Kendra arrives by plane in ''What's My Line, Part One'' (2.09), and the airport itself is shown in ''Choices'' (3.19) and ''Who Are You'' (4.16) as well as ''Bargaining I'' (6.01). The airport shown in this episode is actually [[Wikipedia:Bob Hope Airport|Burbank Airport]] with "Sunnydale" photoshopped over the word ''Burbank''. In ''Tabula Rasa'' (6.08), Giles's ticket shows an itinerary from Sunnydale Airport to [[Wikipedia:Los Angeles International Airport|Los Angeles International Airport]] and then to [[Wikipedia:London Heathrow Airport|London Heathrow Airport]], which is the same route announced on the public address system as Giles awaits his flight in ''Bargaining, Part I'' (6.01).</ref> and a small military base.<ref>In "Innocence" (2.14), Xander and Cordelia break into the base to steal a rocket launcher as part of his plan to destroy the Judge.</ref>
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Centuries later, Navajo and Chumash peoples lived in this area. One or more groups of monks or friars also settled in this area.<ref name=":1">"[[The Glittering World]]"</ref><ref name=":0" /> As in general California history, it can safely be supposed those friars to be Spanish Franciscans, who arrived in California in the late 18th century.<ref name=":8" /> In 1812, there was an [[earthquake]] in the Sunnydale region that caused a cave-in in which an entire mission was lost; the very existence of the mission was soon forgotten.<ref name=":0" />
[[File:Amends517.jpg|thumb|Downtown Sunnydale]]
 
   
Directly beneath [[Sunnydale High School]] is a [[Hellmouth]], a location in which mystical energy converges and in which the walls that separate this world from hell dimensions is particularly thin, attracting demonic creatures and affecting the surrounding areas. This functions as a major plot device in ''Buffy the Vampire Slayer'', as it explains why [[vampire]]s and other [[demon]]s are so prevalent in Sunnydale.
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[[Richard Wilkins]] arrived in California in the late 1800s, looking for gold. He founded Sunnydale (after considering the alternate names "Happydale" and "Sunny Acres") in a demon infested valley after a Navajo Slayer died there.<ref name=":1" /> He made a pact with the demons to found a town atop the Hellmouth for them "to feed on", in return for the promise of immortality by becoming a pure demon himself. Wilkins became Mayor of Sunnydale.<ref name=":9" />
   
[[Image:SunnydaleDestroyed.jpg|thumb|left|190px|The crater following Sunnydale's destruction in 2003.]]
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In the 1930s, there was at least one more major earthquake in Sunnydale. This caused a cave-in that swallowed up the Master and his lair, as well as the temple on Kingman's Bluff. (The date of this earthquake was given as either 1932 or 1937, although it was possible these were two distinct quakes.)<ref>"[[The Harvest]]"</ref><ref name=":10">"[[Grave]]"</ref>
   
Sunnydale possesses many common horror-movie characteristics, such as an abundance of dark alleyways, abandoned mansions and factories, and an adult population that is either clueless or perpetually in denial, in stark contrast to the demon-fighting, supernaturally aware teens.
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Sometime in the 1980s or 1990s, Richard Wilkins was again elected mayor, now under the name of "Richard Wilkins III", and served more than one term.<ref name=":9">"[[Enemies]]"</ref>
   
By the show's seventh season, set in 2002-03, the city's population has fallen to 32,900.<ref>The "Welcome to Sunnydale" sign says 32,900 in ''Conversations with Dead People'' (7.07).</ref> In the spring, the town is almost completely evacuated before its destruction.
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By the 1990s, Sunnydale appeared to have become a typical town on the California coast, with a popular mayor, a police force, and a local newspaper (the ''[[Sunnydale Press]]''). However, Mayor Wilkins had instructed the police to cover up any supernatural or mysterious violence occurring in the city, and had instructed Principal Snyder to cover up supernatural violence occurring at Sunnydale High.<ref name=":2" /><ref name=":3" /><ref>"[[I Only Have Eyes for You]]"</ref><ref>"[[Graduation Day, Part One]]"</ref>
   
===Sunnydale's surroundings===
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===After Buffy's arrival===
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[[File:P1010563.jpg|thumb|A view of the town from Sunnydale Hospital.]]
   
Sunnydale has a somewhat isolated location.<ref>When Sunnydale is stricken by a town-wide epidemic -- such as the silence spell in ''Hush'' (4.10) -- no other towns seem to be nearby.</ref>
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In the winter of 1997, Buffy Summers, the active Slayer, moved to [[1630 Revello Drive]], where she began attending Sunnydale High. There she met new friends, including [[Willow Rosenberg]], [[Alexander Harris]], [[Cordelia Chase]], and [[Daniel Osbourne]], as well as the [[vampire]] [[Angel]] and her new [[Watcher]], [[Rupert Giles]]. This [[Scooby Gang]] often hung out at the [[Bronze]], the [[Espresso Pump]] coffee house, and the Sun Cinema. Buffy's mother, [[Joyce Summers|Joyce]], worked in [[the gallery|an art gallery]] in Sunnydale.
   
The town is situated near several acres of woods and forest, including Miller's Woods.<ref>The woods in ''Homecoming'' (3.05) are named "Miller's Woods". In ''Bargaining, Part Two'' (6.02) and ''Villains'' (6.20) the woods are large enough to get lost in.</ref> Breaker's Woods is 45-minute drive from town.<ref>Giles visited there during ''Lovers Walk'' (3.08).</ref>
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During their time in high school, Buffy and her friends fought a number of vampires, most notably the [[Master]], [[Spike]], [[Drusilla]], and (when he had lost his soul) Angel. Another slayer, [[Faith Lehane|Faith]], arrived during their senior year of high school and lived at the [[Sunnydale Motor Inn]] until she joined forces with Mayor Wilkins.
   
Sunnydale is located on or near the [[Wikipedia:Pacific Ocean|Pacific Ocean]]. An ocean port with several docked ships is nearby<ref>The port is seen in ''Surprise'' (2.13) and ''Consequences'' (3.15). In ''Consequences'', Giles refers to Buffy and Faith's return from the docks as "coming back to town", indicating that the docks are not part of Sunnydale itself.</ref>. Nearby, [[Kingman's Bluff]] stands on a tall cliff overlooking the sea.<ref>Kingman's Bluff is the location of Willow's terrible spell (''Grave'', 6.22).</ref> There is a nearby beach.<ref>It is not specified how close this beach is to Sunnydale. It is seen in ''Go Fish'' (2.20) and ''Buffy vs. Dracula'' (5.01).</ref>
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In June 1999 Sunnydale High was destroyed in a great conflict that killed Mayor Wilkins and Principal [[Snyder]]. The political leaders of the city after this point remain unknown. The police occasionally appeared, but the police chief did not. The ''Sunnydale Press'' once had the headline "Mayhem caused. Monsters certainly not involved, officials say",<ref name=":OMwF">"[[Once More, with Feeling]]"</ref> suggesting the police continued covering up supernatural evidence.
   
Near, or in Sunnydale is an old quarry house built beside a deep lake, located a few feet from a cliff edge.<ref>Although the quarry house never appears in any episodes, it does make an appearance in the comic book series ''[[The Blood of Carthage]]'', which explains the house's [[Wikipedia:Pre-Columbian|Pre-Columbian]] origins. The house and its also appear in the ''[[Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Chaos Bleeds|Chaos Bleeds]]'' video game.</ref> In addition, there is a hydroelectric dam in the vicinity of Sunnydale.<ref>In ''As You Were'' (6.15), Buffy, Riley and Riley's wife, Sam, fight a Suvolte demon on a dam. Presumably the dam is either in or near Sunnydale, as Riley and Buffy drive a short distance to reach it.</ref>
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In the fall of 1999, Buffy, Willow and Oz began attending UC Sunnydale. There they discovered that the [[United States Government]] had been operating a secret military complex, the [[Initiative]], in a cavern beneath the campus. The Initiative was closed down in spring 2000 after a climactic battle with the cyborg [[Adam]]. By this time, [[Tara Maclay]] and [[Anya Jenkins|Anya]] had joined the Scooby Gang. Later this same year, Giles purchased a magic shop named the [[Magic Box]].<ref>"[[Real Me]]"</ref>
   
Within a day's drive of Sunnydale is a [[Wikipedia:Desert|desert]].<ref>Giles drives Buffy to the desert in ''Intervention'' (5.18), and drives with the Potentials to the desert in ''The Killer in Me'' (7.13).</ref>
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During the summer of 2000, the [[Key]], an ancient mystical energy, was transformed into Buffy's younger sister, [[Dawn Summers]]. The next year brought the deaths of Joyce Summers and also of Buffy herself, although Buffy was brought back from the grave. After this point, Buffy and Dawn became co-owners of the family house.<ref>"[[Empty Places]]"</ref>
   
In the final episode of ''Buffy the Vampire Slayer'' ("[[Chosen]]"), and also in the first issue of the [[Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eight|''Buffy: Season Eight'']] comic book, Sunnydale is depicted being surrounded by desert terrain.<ref>At the end of ''Chosen'' (7.22) the town has sunk into a large pit, and the pit is completely surrounded by desert. It is shown this way in the comic book ''[[Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eight]]'' # 1, [[The Long Way Home]], pages 14-15.</ref> However, this appears to contradict information established earlier in the series about Sunnydale's surroundings.
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In spring 2002, the Magic Box was destroyed in a battle between Willow and Buffy. In the fall of 2002, Sunnydale High was rebuilt, on exactly the same location as before - directly over the Hellmouth. By this time, knowledge of supernatural phenomena seemed to be slowly growing in the town.<ref name=":OMwF" /> Sunnydale's population had dropped from 38,500<ref>"[[School Hard]]"</ref><ref>"[[Lovers Walk]]"</ref> to 32,900.<ref>"[[Conversations with Dead People]]"</ref>
   
===Maps of Sunnydale===
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[[File:SunnydaleDestruction.jpg|thumb|Sunnydale was sucked into the Hellmouth during the battle against the First Evil.]]
   
Maps of Sunnydale have appeared at various times during the show:
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In early 2003, supernatural manifestations at Sunnydale High reached unprecedented levels. Within less than a month, virtually the entire population of the town fled in a mass evacuation.<ref name=":8" /><ref name=":7" /> Soon thereafter, the cataclysmic showdown between the Scooby Gang and the [[First Evil]] resulted in the complete obliteration of the town, which collapsed into a giant pit, closing the entrance to the Hellmouth.<ref name=":6" />
   
* A large map of "Sunnydale County" hangs on the wall of Principal Snyder's office and also on the wall of Mayor Wilkins' office.<ref>It was in the principal's office in ''Dead Man's Party'' (3.02), and in the mayor's office in various third-season episodes. The best view of the map is in ''Choices'' (3.19). Compare this with the map of Santa Barbara County at http://www.countyofsb.org/stats.asp.</ref> This is actually a map of [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara County, California|Santa Barbara County, California]] with the words "Sunnydale County" superimposed on it. According to this map, Sunnydale is located at a bend on the California coast. To the south and west of Sunnydale is the Pacific Ocean.
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The Scooby Gang and the Slayer army later headed back to Sunnydale, in the hope of recovering the [[Seed of Wonder]], to end all the chaos unleashed upon the world by Buffy and Angel.<ref>''[[Last Gleaming, Part One]]''</ref> In the ruins of the town, the Master had been guarding the Seed.<ref>''[[Last Gleaming, Part Two]]''</ref> Following the destruction of the artifact, Sunnydale received a number of creatures in search for its shards, including [[Morgan]], [[Pearl]], and [[Nash]].<ref>''[[A Dark Place, Part Two]]''</ref>
   
* Giles uses a street map of Santa Barbara as a map of Sunnydale when he is plotting sightings of the Initiative commandos in the series's fourth season.<ref>''Doomed'' (4.11)</ref>
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After the supernatural became public knowledge,<ref>''[[Harmonic Divergence]]''</ref> it became tradition for revelers to party at Sunnydale on [[Halloween (holiday)|Halloween]], a "celebration of the occult at the town that proved its existence." Around that same time, [[Andrew Wells]] stole the [[Slayer Handbook]] and returned to Sunnydale, planning to use the book and the new rules of magic to his advantage to resurrect the late [[Jonathan Levinson]] and [[Tara Maclay]] in an effort to atone for his past sins; however, his efforts attracted a [[Soul Glutton]].<ref>''[[Return to Sunnydale, Part One]]''</ref>
   
* A street map of central Sunnydale is used by the Scooby Gang twice in the seventh season.<ref>Once early in the season, and again in ''Touched'' (7.20).</ref>
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==Environs==
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===Sunnydale itself===
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[[File:Sunnydale.jpg|thumb]]
   
* In the seventh season, Andrew draws a map of Sunnydale to track the First's activities.<ref>Shown in ''Get it Done'' (7.15).</ref> The general shape of the coastline matches the map used in season three. According to Andrew's map, there are woods between Sunnydale and the ocean to the west and to the south, and directly southeast of the town, at the location where the coast bends, there is a dark forest. There are also woods to the east of Sunnydale, as well as railroad tracks.
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In the late 1990s, Sunnydale's population was around 38,500,<ref name=":2">"[[School Hard]]"</ref><ref name=":3">"[[Lovers Walk]]"</ref> with very few high schools (Sunnydale High, [[Fondren High]], [[Kent Preparatory School]], [[Miss Porter's]]), forty-three churches,<ref>"[[What's My Line? Part Two]]"</ref> a small private college ([[Crestwood College]]), the [[Sunnydale Zoo]], the [[Sunnydale Natural History Museum]], and one modest main street ([[Maple Court]]). Even so, it had twelve cemeteries,<ref>"[[Revelations]]"</ref> among them [[Restfield Cemetery|Restifield]], [[Shady Hill Cemetery|Shady Hill]], and [[Sunnydale Cemetery]]; these cemeteries were so heavily used that services were sometimes held at night.<ref name=":OMwF" />
   
<gallery>
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Sunnydale also contained a campus of the University of California system, as well as a profitable magic supply shop, The Magic Box. The town, or the surrounding area, also included a large park containing a creek and a lake,<ref name=":OMwF" /> and one of its cemeteries was shown to be adjacent to a lake.<ref>"[[Help]]"</ref>
Image: Sunnydale.map.png|A map of Sunnydale made by a fan
 
File:SunnydaleMap.jpg|Sunnydale map
 
Image: SUNNYDALE_final_mini.jpg|Another fanmade Sunnydale map
 
</gallery>
 
   
==Location==
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[[File:P1010526.jpg|thumb|Sunnydale at night]]
===Evidence for a location in the Santa Barbara region===
 
   
Sunnydale is located on the California coast, about a two-hour drive northwest of Los Angeles. This is indicated by the following:
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Sunnydale had a train station ([[Sunnydale Station]]), a bus station ([[Overland Charters]]), a small airport ([[Sunnydale Airport]]), and a small military base.<ref>"[[Innocence]]"</ref>
   
* In the first episode of ''Buffy the Vampire Slayer'', Buffy has just moved from Los Angeles to [[Summers' residence|a house in Sunnydale]], and she complains that she is now "two hours from a Neiman Marcus". This is evidently in reference to the [[Wikipedia:Neiman Marcus|Neiman Marcus]] store in [[Wikipedia:Beverly Hills, California|Beverly Hills]].
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[[File:Amends517.jpg|thumb|Downtown Sunnydale]]
   
* The characters visit other towns on the central and southern coast of California, including [[Wikipedia:Monterey, California|Monterey]]<ref>''Doppelgängland"'' (3.16).</ref> and [[Wikipedia:Oxnard, California|Oxnard]]<ref>''The Freshman'' (4.01).</ref>.
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Directly beneath Sunnydale High School was a Hellmouth, a location in which mystical energy converges and in which the walls that separate this world from hell dimensions was particularly thin, attracting demonic creatures and affecting the surrounding areas. This explains why vampires and other demons were so prevalent in the city.
   
* The characters often drive to [[Wikipedia:Los Angeles, California|Los Angeles]]<ref>Visits to Angel in Los Angeles are made in ''I Will Remember You'' (''Angel'' episode 1.08), ''Sanctuary'' (''Angel'' episode 1.19), and ''Orpheus'' (''Angel'' episode 4.15).</ref>, but rarely refer to the [[Wikipedia:San Francisco Bay Area|San Francisco Bay Area]], suggesting that they are much closer to the former than to the latter. Indeed, when the characters visit the Bay Area, it seems to be a more substantial trip. When Giles visits [[Wikipedia:Oakland, California|Oakland]], he flies by plane,<ref>Giles mentions Oakland twice in ''Anne'', saying that he flew there looking for Buffy (3.01).</ref> and [[Wikipedia:Gilroy, California|Gilroy]] is a significant ride "up north" on a motorcycle.<ref>''Empty Places'' (7.19). Note, however, that it is impossible for Spike and Andrew to visit a "mission" in [[Wikipedia:Gilroy, California|Gilroy]], because there is no [[Wikipedia:Spanish missions in California|California mission]] in that city.</ref>
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Sunnydale possessed many common horror-movie characteristics, such as an abundance of dark alleyways, abandoned mansions and factories, and an adult population that was either clueless or perpetually in denial, in stark contrast to the demon-fighting, supernaturally aware teens.
   
* In the third season, Sunnydale is shown on a TV weather map in approximately the same position as [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara, California|Santa Barbara]].<ref>''Amends'' (3.10).</ref>
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By the year 2002, the city's population had fallen to 32,900.<ref>"[[Conversations with Dead People]]"</ref> In the spring, the town was almost completely evacuated, before its complete destruction.
   
* In the fourth season, the characters are attacked by the spirits of Native Americans described as [[Wikipedia:Chumash (tribe)|Chumash]], a tribe local to Santa Barbara and Ventura counties.<ref>''Pangs'' (4.08).</ref>
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===Surroundings===
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Sunnydale was a somewhat isolated location. Whenever the city was stricken by a town-wide epidemic — such as the silence spell —,<ref>"[[Hush]]"</ref> no other towns seemed to be nearby.
   
* In an episode of [[Angel (series)|''Angel'']], [[Lilah Morgan|Lilah]] refers to Sunnydale as being "up the coast" from Los Angeles.<ref>''Home'' (Angel episode 4.22).</ref>
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The town was situated near several acres of woods and forest, including [[Miller's Woods]]. Breaker's Woods was a 45-minute drive from town.<ref name=":3" />
   
* In the comic book [[Reunion (comic)|''Reunion'']], written by [[Jane Espenson]], Anya states that the [[Wikipedia:Denny's|Denny's]] in [[Wikipedia:Oxnard, California|Oxnard]] is exactly half-way between Buffy's and Angel's residences.<ref>[[Reunion (comic)|''Reunion'']].</ref> From the [[Hyperion Hotel]] to Oxnard is 59 miles; assuming that Anya was being precise, this would put Sunnydale on the northwest outskirts of Santa Barbara.
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[[File:SunnydaleDestroyed.jpg|thumb|The crater following Sunnydale's destruction in 2003.]]
   
Thus, this evidence would place Sunnydale very close to [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara, California|Santa Barbara, California]]. Since [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara, California|Santa Barbara]] is never itself been mentioned in the show, it could be surmised that Sunnydale simply ''is'' the Santa Barbara of the Buffy universe. Many of the [[Wikipedia:Establishing shot|establishing shots]] of the town are in fact shots of [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara, California|Santa Barbara]].
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Sunnydale was located on or near the Pacific Ocean. An ocean port with several docked ships was nearby ([[Sunnydale Port]]). Nearby, [[Kingman's Bluff]] stands on a tall cliff overlooking the sea.<ref name=":10" /> There was a nearby beach([[Sunnydale Beach]]). There was a hydroelectric dam in the vicinity of Sunnydale.<ref name=":5" />
   
On the other hand, it also is possible that [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara, California|Santa Barbara]] exists in the Buffy universe, and that Sunnydale is merely located close to it. [[Joss Whedon]] stated in November 1998 that "Sunnydale is in fact near [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara, California|Santa Barbara]]."<ref>Joss Whedon post on ''The Bronze'' posting board, November 22, 1998, archived [http://www.cise.ufl.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/hsiao/buffy/get-archive?date=19981122 here].</ref>
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Within a day's drive of Sunnydale was a desert.<ref>"[[Intervention]]"</ref><ref>"[[The Killer in Me]]"</ref> After its destruction, it was surrounded by desert terrain.<ref name=":6">"[[Chosen]]"</ref><ref>''[[The Long Way Home, Part One]]''</ref><ref>''[[Return to Sunnydale, Part Two]]''</ref>
   
===Evidence for other locations===
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==Maps of Sunnydale==
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A large map of "Sunnydale County" hangs on the wall of Principal Snyder's office,<ref>"[[Dead Man's Party]]"</ref> as well as on the wall of Mayor Wilkins' office.<ref>"[[Choices]]"</ref> According to this map, Sunnydale was located at a bend on the California coast. To the south and west of Sunnydale was the Pacific Ocean.
   
There are also a few indications that associate Sunnydale with other California locations:
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Giles used a street map of Sunnydale when he was plotting sightings of the Initiative commandos.<ref>"[[Doomed]]"</ref> A street map of central Sunnydale was used by the Scooby Gang twice in 2002.<ref name=":7">"[[Touched]]"</ref>
   
* UC Sunnydale also has a connection to the [[Wikipedia:University of California, Santa Cruz|University of California, Santa Cruz]]. In several episodes of the fourth season, UC Sunnydale dormitories named Kresge and Stevenson are mentioned. Kresge and Stevenson are names of colleges on the campus of UC Santa Cruz.<ref name="MartiNoxon">[http://www1.ucsc.edu/currents/99-00/03-06/buffy.html The horror of it all: Alumna tells tales of vampires, film classes, and a career in television] By Barbara McKenna, March 6, 2000, ''accessed 21-Oct-2012''</ref> Note, however, that in ''Angel'', [[Eve (Potential Slayer)|Eve]] refers to UC Santa Cruz as her alma mater, so UC Santa Cruz is a distinct school in the Buffy universe.<ref>''Life of the Party'' and ''Destiny'' (Angel episodes 5.05 and 5.08).</ref>
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Andrew drew a map of Sunnydale to track the First's activities. The general shape of the coastline matched previously used maps. According to Andrew's map, there were woods between Sunnydale and the ocean to the west and to the south, and a dark forest directly southeast of the town, where the coast bends. There were also woods to the east of Sunnydale, as well as railroad tracks.<ref>"[[Get It Done]]"</ref>
   
* Buffy's home is in the 95037 ZIP Code, according to the text on a letter shown in the show.<ref>Letter shown in "As You Were" (6.15).</ref> This is the real life ZIP Code for the city of [[Wikipedia:Morgan Hill|Morgan Hill]], which is situated southwest of San Jose, Santa Clara, and Sunnyvale. However, Giles once mentioned he was taking a flight from Sunnydale to Oakland, which would eliminate that possibility.
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==Behind the scenes==
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===Trivia===
* Joss Whedon has remarked that originally he loosely based Sunnydale on [[Wikipedia:Monterey, California|Monterey, California]], but that it was never intended to be an exact parallel.
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*Series creator [[Joss Whedon]] conceived the town as a representation of the typical, anonymous, generic suburban city, as well as a narrative parody of the all-too-serene towns typical in traditional horror movies.
+
*Sunnydale was "located" on the California coast, two hours northwest of Los Angeles. If Sunnydale was to be identified with an actual college town in this region, [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara, California|Santa Barbara]] (or perhaps [[Wikipedia:San Luis Obispo, California|San Luis Obispo]]) would be the logical choice. In Season Three, the mayor's office was shown with a giant map of "Sunnydale County"; this map was an actual map of [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara County, California|Santa Barbara County]] with a new name pasted over it. Many of the long-range outside shots of the town were actually shots of Santa Barbara. These were especially clear in the widescreen versions of seasons four to seven; some of the Spanish-style buildings were obviously in the heart of downtown Santa Barbara to anyone familiar with the city.
===Connection to Sunnyvale===
+
*In fiction fandom, "Sunnydale Syndrome" is a name given to the semi-common tendency of mundane characters to fail to notice, or to reject as unreal or impossible, the unusual activities taking place under their noses, even when blindingly obvious.<ref>[http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/SunnydaleSyndrome "Sunnydale Syndrome"]. ''TV Tropes''. Retrieved December 23, 2017.</ref>
+
*The screen used map was little more than background set dressing and does not even show the street Revello Drive (the street Buffy lived on).
Sunnydale's name is very close to that of [[Wikipedia:Sunnyvale, California|Sunnyvale]], a city in [[Wikipedia:California|California's]] [[Wikipedia:Silicon Valley|Silicon Valley]]. There is some evidence of a Sunnydale-[[Wikipedia:Sunnyvale, California|Sunnyvale]] connection:
 
 
* In the seventh season, the character [[Cassie Newton]] is shown to have created a website. Screenwriter [[Rebecca Rand Kirshner]] created an [[Cassie Newton#Website and trivia|actual website]] for this character, and registered it to "Cassie Newton" at a fake address. The [[Wikipedia:ZIP code|ZIP Code]] she used is 94086, which is an actual [[Wikipedia:ZIP code|ZIP Code]] in [[Wikipedia:Sunnyvale, California|Sunnyvale]].<ref>''[[Help]]'' (7.04).</ref>
 
 
* [[Wikipedia:Sunnyvale, California|Sunnyvale]] borders the city of [[Wikipedia:Santa Clara, California|Santa Clara, California]] whose name bears a resemblance to ''Santa Carla'', another fictional vampire-infested [[Wikipedia:California|California]] coastal town and the setting of the film [[Wikipedia:The Lost Boys|The Lost Boys]], from whence the term ''vamp out,'' used often in Buffy and Angel, originates.
 
 
However, the geography of [[Wikipedia:Sunnyvale, California|Sunnyvale]] makes it a poor candidate for Sunnydale, since it is located more than 300 miles (480 km) north of [[Wikipedia:Los Angeles|Los Angeles]].
 
   
 
===Filming locations===
 
===Filming locations===
  +
{{Main|Buffy the Vampire Slayer filming locations}}
   
Various southern California locations are used as stand-ins for Sunnydale:
+
Various southern California locations were used as stand-ins for Sunnydale:
   
* The exterior shots of [[Sunnydale High]] are of [[Wikipedia:Torrance High School|Torrance High School]] in [[Wikipedia:Torrance, California|Torrance, California]].
+
*The exterior shots of Sunnydale High were of [[Wikipedia:Torrance High School|Torrance High School]] in [[Wikipedia:Torrance, California|Torrance]], California.
  +
*The exterior shots and some interior shots of Buffy's home were of an actual home located in Torrance.
  +
*The exterior shots of the Mayor's office in season three were filmed in Torrance, California.
  +
*Most of the University of California, Sunnydale scenes were filmed at the University of California, Los Angeles, and in a closed sound stage designed to match the [[Wikipedia:University of California, Los Angeles|UCLA]] architecture. Some of the later scenes were filmed at a private business park.
  +
*The exterior shots of New Sunnydale High were filmed at [[Wikipedia:California State University, Northridge|California State University, Northridge]] in [[Wikipedia:Northridge, Los Angeles, California|Northridge]], California.
   
* The exterior shots, and some interior shots, of [[Summers' residence|Buffy's home]] are of an actual home located in Torrance.
+
===Evidence for a location in the Santa Barbara region===
  +
Sunnydale was located on the California coast, about a two-hour drive northwest of Los Angeles. This was indicated by the following:
   
* The exterior shots of the Mayor's office in season three are filmed in [[Wikipedia:Torrance, California|Torrance, California]].
+
*Buffy had just moved from Los Angeles to a house in Sunnydale, and she complains that she was now "two hours from a Neiman Marcus". This was evidently in reference to the [[Wikipedia:Neiman Marcus|Neiman Marcus]] store in [[Wikipedia:Beverly Hills, California|Beverly Hills]].
  +
*The characters visited other towns on the central and southern coast of California, including [[Wikipedia:Monterey, California|Monterey]]<ref>"[[Doppelgangland]]"</ref> and [[Wikipedia:Oxnard, California|Oxnard]].<ref>"[[The Freshman]]"</ref>
  +
*The characters often drove to Los Angeles,<ref>"[[I Will Remember You]]"</ref><ref>"[[Sanctuary]]"</ref><ref>"[[Orpheus]]"</ref> but rarely refer to the [[Wikipedia:San Francisco Bay Area|San Francisco Bay Area]], suggesting that they were much closer to the former than to the latter. Indeed, when the characters visit the Bay Area, it seems to be a more substantial trip. When Giles visits [[Wikipedia:Oakland, California|Oakland]], he flies by plane,<ref>"[[Anne (episode)|Anne]]"</ref> and [[Wikipedia:Gilroy, California|Gilroy]] was a significant ride "up north" on a motorcycle.<ref name=":8">"[[Empty Places]]"</ref>
  +
*Sunnydale had been shown on a TV weather map in approximately the same position as [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara, California|Santa Barbara]].<ref>"[[Amends]]"</ref>
  +
*The Scooby Gang was attacked by the spirits of Native Americans described as Chumash, a tribe local to Santa Barbara and Ventura counties.<ref name=":0">"[[Pangs]]"</ref>
  +
*[[Lilah Morgan]] refereed to Sunnydale as being "up the coast" from Los Angeles.<ref>"[[Home]]"</ref>
  +
*Anya stated that the [[Wikipedia:Denny's|Denny's]] in Oxnard was exactly half-way between Buffy's and Angel's residences.<ref>''[[Reunion (comic)|Reunion]]''</ref> From the [[Hyperion Hotel]] to Oxnard was 59 miles; assuming that Anya was being precise, this would put Sunnydale on the northwest outskirts of Santa Barbara.
   
* Most of the [[UC Sunnydale|University of California, Sunnydale]] scenes were filmed at the [[Wikipedia:University of California, Los Angeles|University of California, Los Angeles]], and in a closed sound stage designed to match the [[Wikipedia:University of California, Los Angeles|UCLA]] architecture. Some of the later scenes were filmed at a private business park.
+
Thus, this evidence would place Sunnydale very close to Santa Barbara, California. Since Santa Barbara was never itself been mentioned in the show, it could be surmised that Sunnydale simply was the Santa Barbara of the Buffy universe. Many of the establishing shots of the town were in fact shots of Santa Barbara.
   
* The exterior shots of New [[Sunnydale High]] were filmed at [[Wikipedia:California State University, Northridge|California State University, Northridge]] in [[Wikipedia:Northridge, Los Angeles, California|Northridge]], [[Wikipedia:California|California]].
+
On the other hand, it also was possible that Santa Barbara exists in the Buffy universe, and that Sunnydale was merely located close to it. [[Joss Whedon]] stated in November 1998 that "Sunnydale was in fact near Santa Barbara."<ref>Joss Whedon post on ''The Bronze'' posting board, November 22, 1998, archived [http://www.cise.ufl.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/hsiao/buffy/get-archive?date=19981122 here].</ref>
   
==History==
+
===Evidence for other locations===
===Prior to Buffy's arrival===
+
There were also a few indications that associate Sunnydale with other California locations:
Long before humans settled the area, an entrance to the [[Hellmouth]] existed at the site of the future town of Sunnydale.
 
   
In ancient times, a magic [[scythe]] was used at the site of the Hellmouth "to kill the last pure demon that walked upon the Earth." After this, the scythe was hidden, and its last [[Guardians|guardian]] remained, waiting in a pagan temple that would somehow remain unnoticed for centuries.<ref>''[[End of Days]]'' (7.21).</ref>
+
*UC Sunnydale also had a connection to the [[Wikipedia:University of California, Santa Cruz|University of California, Santa Cruz]]. In several episodes of the fourth season, UC Sunnydale dormitories named Kresge and Stevenson were mentioned. Kresge and Stevenson were names of colleges on the campus of UC Santa Cruz.<ref name="MartiNoxon">[http://www1.ucsc.edu/currents/99-00/03-06/buffy.html The horror of it all: Alumna tells tales of vampires, film classes, and a career in television] By Barbara McKenna, March 6, 2000, ''accessed 21-Oct-2012''</ref> However, [[Eve (Potential Slayer)|Eve]] refereed to UC Santa Cruz as her alma mater, so UC Santa Cruz was a distinct school in the Buffy universe.<ref>"[[Life of the Party]]"</ref><ref>"[[Destiny]]"</ref>
  +
*Buffy's home was in the 95037 ZIP Code, according to the text shown in a letter.<ref name=":5">"[[As You Were]]"</ref> This was the real life ZIP Code for the city of [[Wikipedia:Morgan Hill|Morgan Hill]], which was situated southwest of San Jose, Santa Clara, and Sunnyvale. However, Giles once mentioned he was taking a flight from Sunnydale to Oakland, which would eliminate that possibility.
  +
*Joss Whedon had remarked that originally he loosely based Sunnydale on [[Wikipedia:Monterey, California|Monterey, California]], but that it was never intended to be an exact parallel.
   
Centuries later, [[Wikipedia:Navajo people|Navajo]] and [[Wikipedia:Chumash (tribe)|Chumash]] peoples lived in this area. One or more groups of [[Wikipedia:Monk|monks]] or [[Wikipedia:Friar|friars]] also settled in this area.<ref>Navajo (Diné) people are mentioned in "The Glittering World" in ''[[Tales of the Slayers]]''. Chumash are mentioned in ''Pangs'' (4.08). One group of monks were mentioned by the ancient guardian in ''[[End of Days]]'' (7.21); a possibly different group in ''Pangs'' (4.08).</ref> As in general [[Wikipedia:California|California]] history, it can safely supposed those friars to be [[Wikipedia:Spanish people|Spanish]] [[Wikipedia:Franciscans|Franciscans]], who arrived in [[Wikipedia:California|California]] in the late 18th century.<ref>Spike and Andrew journey to a different mission in [[Empty Places]] (7.19).</ref> In 1812, there was an [[Wikipedia:Earthquake|earthquake]] in the Sunnydale region that caused a cave-in in which an entire [[Wikipedia:Spanish missions in California|mission]] was lost; the very existence of the mission was soon forgotten.<ref>''Pangs'' (4.08).</ref>.
+
===Connection to Sunnyvale===
  +
Sunnydale's name was very close to that of [[Wikipedia:Sunnyvale, California|Sunnyvale]], a city in California's [[Wikipedia:Silicon Valley|Silicon Valley]]. There was some evidence of a Sunnydale–Sunnyvale connection:
   
[[Richard Wilkins]] arrived in [[Wikipedia:California|California]] in the late [[Wikipedia:1800s|1800s]], looking for gold. He founded Sunnydale (after considering the alternate names "Happydale" and "Sunny Acres") in a [[demon]] infested valley after a [[Wikipedia:Navajo|Navajo]] [[Slayer]] died there.<ref>"The Glittering World", in ''[[Tales of the Slayers]]''.</ref> He made a pact with the [[demons]] to found a town atop the [[Hellmouth]] for them "to feed on", in return for the promise of immortality by becoming a pure demon himself. [[Richard Wilkins|Wilkins]] became Mayor of Sunnydale.<ref>''[[Enemies]]'' (3.17).</ref>
+
*In the seventh season, the character [[Cassie Newton]] was shown to have created a website. Screenwriter [[Rebecca Rand Kirshner]] created an [[Cassie Newton#Website and trivia|actual website]] for this character and registered it to "Cassie Newton" at a fake address. The ZIP Code she used was 94086, which was an actual ZIP Code in Sunnyvale.<ref>"[[Help]]"</ref>
  +
*Sunnyvale borders the city of [[Wikipedia:Santa Clara, California|Santa Clara, California]] whose name bears a resemblance to ''Santa Carla'', another fictional vampire-infested California coastal town and the setting of the film [[Wikipedia:The Lost Boys|''The Lost Boys'']], from which the term "vamp out", used often in ''Buffy'' and ''Angel'', originates.
  +
However, the geography of Sunnyvale makes it a poor candidate for Sunnydale, since it was located more than 300 miles (480 km) north of Los Angeles.
   
In the 1930s, there was at least one more major earthquake in Sunnydale. This caused a cave-in that swallowed up [[Master|The Master]] and his lair, as well as the temple on Kingman's Bluff. (The date of this earthquake is given as either 1932 or 1937, although it is possible these were two distinct quakes.)<ref>In ''The Harvest'' (1.02), Willow refers to an earthquake in 1937 which "swallowed half the town", including the Master's lair. In ''Grave'' (6.22), Anya says that the temple on Kingman's Bluff was "swallowed up in the big earthquake of '32". It is possible they are referring to two different earthquakes, but it is also possible that one of them is simply misstating the date.</ref>
+
==Appearances==
  +
;''[[Buffy the Vampire Slayer]]''
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{{AppearancesBuffyOrigin
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|issue3=yes}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason1
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|all=yes}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason2
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|all=yes}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason3
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|all=yes}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason4
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|all=yes}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason5
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|all=yes}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason6
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|all=yes}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason7
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|all=yes}}
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{{AppearancesTales
  +
|Broken=yes
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|Glittering=yes
  +
|Numb=yes
  +
}}
  +
{{AppearancesBuffySeason8
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|issue1=yes
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|issue2=flash
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|issue4=flash
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|issue7=flash
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|issue9=flash
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|issue12=vision
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|issue27=flash
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|issue34=flash
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|issue36=yes
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|issue37=yes
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|issue38=yes
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|issue39=yes
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|issue40=vision
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|HARM=note
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|Always=vision
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}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason9
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|issue20=flash
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}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason10
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|issue8=yes
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|issue9=yes
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|issue14=flash
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|issue17=note
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|issue21=note
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|issue24=note
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}}
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{{AppearancesBuffySeason11
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|issue10=note
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|Giles2=note
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|Giles3=note
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}}
  +
{{AppearancesBuffySeason12
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|issue1=note
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|issue4=vision
  +
}}
   
Sometime in the 1980s or 1990s, Richard Wilkins was again elected mayor, now under the name of "Richard Wilkins III", and served more than one term.<ref>''[[Enemies]]'' (3.17). A sign saying "Reelect Mayor Wilkins" is visible; since no election is currently being held, this indicates a past re-election bid.</ref>
+
;''[[Angel (series)|Angel]]''
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{{AppearancesAngelSeason1
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|episode1=note
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|episode3=note
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|episode19=note
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}}
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{{AppearancesAngelSeason2
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|episode17=yes
  +
}}
  +
{{AppearancesAngelSeason4
  +
|episode15=note
  +
}}
  +
{{AppearancesAngelSeason5
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|episode1=archive
  +
|episode11=note
  +
}}
  +
{{AppearancesSpike
  +
|issue1=flash
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|issue2=note
  +
}}
  +
{{AppearancesAngelFaith
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|issue1=flash
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|issue2=note
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|issue6=flash
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|Spike2=yes
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|Spike3=yes
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|issue15=flash
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|issue18=flash
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|issue19=flash
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|issue21=note
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}}
  +
{{AppearancesAngelFaith10
  +
|issue23=note
  +
}}
   
By the 1990s, Sunnydale appeared to have become a typical on the [[Wikipedia:California|California]] coast, with a popular mayor, a police force, and a local newspaper (the ''Sunnydale Press''<ref>It can be seen in ''[[Never Kill a Boy on the First Date]]'', ''[[Reptile Boy]]'', ''[[Becoming, Part One]]'', ''[[Bad Girls]]'', ''[[Consequences]]'', ''[[Graduation Day, Part One]]'', ''[[Hush]]'', and ''[[Once More, With Feeling]]''.</ref>). However, Mayor Wilkins had instructed the police to cover up any supernatural or mysterious violence occurring in the city, and had instructed Principal Snyder to cover up supernatural violence occurring at [[Sunnydale High]].<ref>In ''Lovers Walk'' (3.08), Wilkins refers to having covered up Spike and Drusilla's rampages during season two. Snyder and the police chief discuss these coverups in ''I Only Have Eyes For You'' (2.19). Wilkins and Snyder discuss it in ''Graduation Day, Part 1'' (3.21).</ref>
+
==References==
  +
{{References|scroll=1}}
   
===After Buffy's arrival===
+
[[de:Sunnydale]]
  +
[[es:Sunnydale]]
  +
[[fr:Sunnydale]]
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[[nl:Sunnydale]]
  +
[[pt:Sunnydale]]
  +
[[pt-br:Sunnydale]]
   
[[File:P1010563.jpg|thumb|left|A view of the town from Sunnydale Hospital]]In the winter of [[Wikipedia:1997|1997]] Buffy Summers, the active [[Slayer|vampire Slayer]], moved to [[Summers' residence|1630 Revello Drive]], where she began attending Sunnydale High. There she met new friends, including [[Willow Rosenberg]], [[Xander Harris]], [[Cordelia Chase]], and [[Daniel Osbourne|Oz]], as well as the vampire [[Angel]] and her new watcher, [[Rupert Giles]]. This "Scooby Gang" often hung out at [[the Bronze]], the [[Espresso Pump]] (a local coffee house with a retro [[Wikipedia:Gas station|gas station]] motif) and the Sun Cinema. Buffy's mother, [[Joyce Summers|Joyce]], worked in an art gallery in Sunnydale.
 
 
During their time in high school, Buffy and her friends fought a number of vampires, most notably [[Master|the Master]], [[Spike]], [[Drusilla]], and (when he had lost his soul) Angel. Another slayer, [[Faith Lehane|Faith]], arrived during their senior year of high school and lived at the Downtowner Motel<ref>The sign reads "Downtowner Motel/Apt." in ''The Zeppo'' (3.12) and others.</ref> until she joined forces with Mayor Wilkins.
 
 
In June 1999 Sunnydale High was destroyed in a great conflict that killed Mayor Wilkins and [[Principal Snyder]]. The political leaders of the city after this point remain unknown. The police occasionally appeared, but the police chief did not. One newspaper headline suggested the police continued covering up supernatural evidence.<ref>In ''Once More With Feeling'' (6.07), the headline of the ''Sunnydale Press'' states, "MAYHEM CAUSED. MONSTERS CERTAINLY NOT INVOLVED, OFFICIALS SAY."</ref>
 
 
In the fall of 1999, Buffy, Willow and Oz began attending [[UC Sunnydale]]. There they discovered that the [[Wikipedia:Federal government of the United States|United States government]] was operating a secret military complex, [[The Initiative (organization)|the Initiative]], in a cavern beneath the campus. The Initiative was closed down in spring 2000 after a climactic battle with the cyborg [[Adam]]. By this time, [[Tara Maclay]] and [[Anya Jenkins|Anya]] had joined the Scooby Gang. Later this same year, Giles purchases a magic shop named [[the Magic Box]].<ref>''The Real Me'' (5.02), which has been seen multiple times previously -- for example, in ''Lovers Walk'' (3.08), at which time it is called ''Uncle Bob's Magic Cabinet''.</ref>
 
 
During the summer of 2000, the mysterious "Key" was transformed into Buffy's younger "sister", [[Dawn Summers]]. The next year brougth the deaths of Joyce Summers and also of Buffy herself, although Buffy was returned from the grave. After this point, Buffy and Dawn became co-owners of the family house.<ref>Joyce's will would have either left the house to Buffy or to Buffy and Dawn. In ''Empty Places'' (7.19), Dawn tells Buffy "this is my house, too."</ref>
 
 
In spring 2002, the Magic Box was destroyed in a battle between Willow and Buffy. In the fall of 2002, Sunnydale High was rebuilt, on exactly the same location as before: directly over the Hellmouth.
 
 
By this time, knowledge of supernatural phenomena seemed to be slowly growing in the town.<ref>For example, the ''Sunnydale Press'' mentions "monsters" in its headline in ''Once More With Feeling'' (6.07).</ref> Sunnydale's population had dropped to 32,900.<ref>The "Welcome to Sunnydale" sign lists a population 38,500 in several early episodes, including ''School Hard'' (2.03) and ''Lovers Walk'' (3.08). In ''Conversations with Dead People'', meanwhile, it gives a population of 32,900 (7.07). The sign is visible for a moment at the end of ''Chosen'' (7.22) but the population figure is not legible.</ref>
 
 
In early 2003, supernatural manifestations at Sunnydale High reached unprecedented levels. Within less than a month, virtually the entire population of the town fled in a mass evacuation.<ref>The evacuation is seen at the beginning of ''Empty Places'' (7.19), although the Bronze is still crowded. By the next episode, ''Touched'' (7.20), the town is virtually empty.</ref> Soon thereafter, the cataclysmic showdown between the Scooby Gang and [[The First Evil]] resulted in the complete obliteration of the town, which collapsed into a giant pit, closing the entrance to the Hellmouth.<ref>''[[Chosen]]'' (7.22).</ref>
 
 
The Scooby Gang and the Slayer army later headed back to Sunnydale, in the hope of recovering [[The Seed Of Wonder|the Seed of Wonder]], to end all the chaos unleashed upon the world by Buffy and Angel.<ref>''[[Last Gleaming, Part One]]''</ref> In the ruins of the town they found [[the Master]] guarding the Seed.
 
 
[[Image:SunnydaleDestruction.jpg|thumb|190px|Sunnydale is sucked into the Hellmouth during the [[battle]] against the First Evil.]]
 
 
== Behind the Scenes ==
 
 
'''Sunnydale, California''' is the fictional suburban setting for the popular television drama ''[[Buffy the Vampire Slayer]]''. Series creator [[Joss Whedon]] conceived the town as a representation of the typical, anonymous, generic suburban city, as well as a narrative parody of the all-too-serene towns typical in traditional horror movies.
 
 
Sunnydale's size and surroundings are implausible and the size of the town changed as the series progressed. 
 
 
Sunnydale possesses many common horror-movie characteristics, such as an abundance of dark alleyways, abandoned mansions and factories, and an inexplicable divide between its demon-fighting, supernaturally aware teens and the sinister or clueless, perpetually in-denial adults.
 
 
Sunnydale is "located" on the California coast, two hours northwest of Los Angeles. If Sunnydale is to be identified with an actual college town in this region, [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara, California|Santa Barbara]] (or perhaps [[Wikipedia:San Luis Obispo, California|San Luis Obispo]]) would be the logical choice. In Season Three, the mayor's office is shown with a giant map of "Sunnydale County"; this map is an actual map of [[Wikipedia:Santa Barbara County, California |Santa Barbara County]] with a new name pasted over it. Many of the long-range outside shots of the town are actually shots of Santa Barbara. These are especially clear in the widescreen versions of seasons four to seven; some of the Spanish-style buildings are obviously in the heart of downtown Santa Barbara to anyone familiar with the city.
 
 
In fiction fandom, '''Sunnydale Syndrome''' is a name given to the semi-common tendency of mundane characters to fail to notice, or to reject as unreal or impossible, the unusual activities taking place under their noses, even when blindingly obvious.
 
 
==References==
 
<small><references /></small>
 
 
[[Category:Locations]]
 
[[Category:Locations]]
 
[[Category:Sunnydale| ]]
 
[[Category:Sunnydale| ]]

Latest revision as of 00:11, March 19, 2020


Sunnydale: come for the food, stay for the dismemberment.
Alexander Harris[src]

Sunnydale was a small Californian town, inhabited by the Slayer Buffy Summers and the Scooby Gang.

The area of Sunnydale was a concentration of demonic energy, which had its focal point under the Sunnydale High School; this was caused by its being the site of the Hellmouth, a gateway between the Earth and demonic dimensions. A college town, it housed the University of California at Sunnydale.

Sunnydale was destroyed and sank into the earth when a massive fissure opened beneath it. Fortunately for the inhabitants, the preceding sense of unrest on the streets and psychic disturbance in the town had already spurred most of the population to leave.

HistoryEdit

Prior to Buffy's arrivalEdit

Long before humans settled the area, an entrance to the Hellmouth existed at the site of the future town of Sunnydale. In ancient times, the mystical weapon was used at the site of the Hellmouth "to kill the last pure demon that walked upon the Earth." After this, the scythe was hidden, and its last of the Guardians remained, waiting in a pagan temple that would somehow remain unnoticed for centuries.[1]

Centuries later, Navajo and Chumash peoples lived in this area. One or more groups of monks or friars also settled in this area.[2][3] As in general California history, it can safely be supposed those friars to be Spanish Franciscans, who arrived in California in the late 18th century.[4] In 1812, there was an earthquake in the Sunnydale region that caused a cave-in in which an entire mission was lost; the very existence of the mission was soon forgotten.[3]

Richard Wilkins arrived in California in the late 1800s, looking for gold. He founded Sunnydale (after considering the alternate names "Happydale" and "Sunny Acres") in a demon infested valley after a Navajo Slayer died there.[2] He made a pact with the demons to found a town atop the Hellmouth for them "to feed on", in return for the promise of immortality by becoming a pure demon himself. Wilkins became Mayor of Sunnydale.[5]

In the 1930s, there was at least one more major earthquake in Sunnydale. This caused a cave-in that swallowed up the Master and his lair, as well as the temple on Kingman's Bluff. (The date of this earthquake was given as either 1932 or 1937, although it was possible these were two distinct quakes.)[6][7]

Sometime in the 1980s or 1990s, Richard Wilkins was again elected mayor, now under the name of "Richard Wilkins III", and served more than one term.[5]

By the 1990s, Sunnydale appeared to have become a typical town on the California coast, with a popular mayor, a police force, and a local newspaper (the Sunnydale Press). However, Mayor Wilkins had instructed the police to cover up any supernatural or mysterious violence occurring in the city, and had instructed Principal Snyder to cover up supernatural violence occurring at Sunnydale High.[8][9][10][11]

After Buffy's arrivalEdit

P1010563

A view of the town from Sunnydale Hospital.

In the winter of 1997, Buffy Summers, the active Slayer, moved to 1630 Revello Drive, where she began attending Sunnydale High. There she met new friends, including Willow Rosenberg, Alexander Harris, Cordelia Chase, and Daniel Osbourne, as well as the vampire Angel and her new Watcher, Rupert Giles. This Scooby Gang often hung out at the Bronze, the Espresso Pump coffee house, and the Sun Cinema. Buffy's mother, Joyce, worked in an art gallery in Sunnydale.

During their time in high school, Buffy and her friends fought a number of vampires, most notably the Master, Spike, Drusilla, and (when he had lost his soul) Angel. Another slayer, Faith, arrived during their senior year of high school and lived at the Sunnydale Motor Inn until she joined forces with Mayor Wilkins.

In June 1999 Sunnydale High was destroyed in a great conflict that killed Mayor Wilkins and Principal Snyder. The political leaders of the city after this point remain unknown. The police occasionally appeared, but the police chief did not. The Sunnydale Press once had the headline "Mayhem caused. Monsters certainly not involved, officials say",[12] suggesting the police continued covering up supernatural evidence.

In the fall of 1999, Buffy, Willow and Oz began attending UC Sunnydale. There they discovered that the United States Government had been operating a secret military complex, the Initiative, in a cavern beneath the campus. The Initiative was closed down in spring 2000 after a climactic battle with the cyborg Adam. By this time, Tara Maclay and Anya had joined the Scooby Gang. Later this same year, Giles purchased a magic shop named the Magic Box.[13]

During the summer of 2000, the Key, an ancient mystical energy, was transformed into Buffy's younger sister, Dawn Summers. The next year brought the deaths of Joyce Summers and also of Buffy herself, although Buffy was brought back from the grave. After this point, Buffy and Dawn became co-owners of the family house.[14]

In spring 2002, the Magic Box was destroyed in a battle between Willow and Buffy. In the fall of 2002, Sunnydale High was rebuilt, on exactly the same location as before - directly over the Hellmouth. By this time, knowledge of supernatural phenomena seemed to be slowly growing in the town.[12] Sunnydale's population had dropped from 38,500[15][16] to 32,900.[17]

SunnydaleDestruction

Sunnydale was sucked into the Hellmouth during the battle against the First Evil.

In early 2003, supernatural manifestations at Sunnydale High reached unprecedented levels. Within less than a month, virtually the entire population of the town fled in a mass evacuation.[4][18] Soon thereafter, the cataclysmic showdown between the Scooby Gang and the First Evil resulted in the complete obliteration of the town, which collapsed into a giant pit, closing the entrance to the Hellmouth.[19]

The Scooby Gang and the Slayer army later headed back to Sunnydale, in the hope of recovering the Seed of Wonder, to end all the chaos unleashed upon the world by Buffy and Angel.[20] In the ruins of the town, the Master had been guarding the Seed.[21] Following the destruction of the artifact, Sunnydale received a number of creatures in search for its shards, including Morgan, Pearl, and Nash.[22]

After the supernatural became public knowledge,[23] it became tradition for revelers to party at Sunnydale on Halloween, a "celebration of the occult at the town that proved its existence." Around that same time, Andrew Wells stole the Slayer Handbook and returned to Sunnydale, planning to use the book and the new rules of magic to his advantage to resurrect the late Jonathan Levinson and Tara Maclay in an effort to atone for his past sins; however, his efforts attracted a Soul Glutton.[24]

EnvironsEdit

Sunnydale itselfEdit

Sunnydale

In the late 1990s, Sunnydale's population was around 38,500,[8][9] with very few high schools (Sunnydale High, Fondren High, Kent Preparatory School, Miss Porter's), forty-three churches,[25] a small private college (Crestwood College), the Sunnydale Zoo, the Sunnydale Natural History Museum, and one modest main street (Maple Court). Even so, it had twelve cemeteries,[26] among them Restifield, Shady Hill, and Sunnydale Cemetery; these cemeteries were so heavily used that services were sometimes held at night.[12]

Sunnydale also contained a campus of the University of California system, as well as a profitable magic supply shop, The Magic Box. The town, or the surrounding area, also included a large park containing a creek and a lake,[12] and one of its cemeteries was shown to be adjacent to a lake.[27]

P1010526

Sunnydale at night

Sunnydale had a train station (Sunnydale Station), a bus station (Overland Charters), a small airport (Sunnydale Airport), and a small military base.[28]

Amends517

Downtown Sunnydale

Directly beneath Sunnydale High School was a Hellmouth, a location in which mystical energy converges and in which the walls that separate this world from hell dimensions was particularly thin, attracting demonic creatures and affecting the surrounding areas. This explains why vampires and other demons were so prevalent in the city.

Sunnydale possessed many common horror-movie characteristics, such as an abundance of dark alleyways, abandoned mansions and factories, and an adult population that was either clueless or perpetually in denial, in stark contrast to the demon-fighting, supernaturally aware teens.

By the year 2002, the city's population had fallen to 32,900.[29] In the spring, the town was almost completely evacuated, before its complete destruction.

SurroundingsEdit

Sunnydale was a somewhat isolated location. Whenever the city was stricken by a town-wide epidemic — such as the silence spell —,[30] no other towns seemed to be nearby.

The town was situated near several acres of woods and forest, including Miller's Woods. Breaker's Woods was a 45-minute drive from town.[9]

SunnydaleDestroyed

The crater following Sunnydale's destruction in 2003.

Sunnydale was located on or near the Pacific Ocean. An ocean port with several docked ships was nearby (Sunnydale Port). Nearby, Kingman's Bluff stands on a tall cliff overlooking the sea.[7] There was a nearby beach(Sunnydale Beach). There was a hydroelectric dam in the vicinity of Sunnydale.[31]

Within a day's drive of Sunnydale was a desert.[32][33] After its destruction, it was surrounded by desert terrain.[19][34][35]

Maps of SunnydaleEdit

A large map of "Sunnydale County" hangs on the wall of Principal Snyder's office,[36] as well as on the wall of Mayor Wilkins' office.[37] According to this map, Sunnydale was located at a bend on the California coast. To the south and west of Sunnydale was the Pacific Ocean.

Giles used a street map of Sunnydale when he was plotting sightings of the Initiative commandos.[38] A street map of central Sunnydale was used by the Scooby Gang twice in 2002.[18]

Andrew drew a map of Sunnydale to track the First's activities. The general shape of the coastline matched previously used maps. According to Andrew's map, there were woods between Sunnydale and the ocean to the west and to the south, and a dark forest directly southeast of the town, where the coast bends. There were also woods to the east of Sunnydale, as well as railroad tracks.[39]

Behind the scenesEdit

TriviaEdit

  • Series creator Joss Whedon conceived the town as a representation of the typical, anonymous, generic suburban city, as well as a narrative parody of the all-too-serene towns typical in traditional horror movies.
  • Sunnydale was "located" on the California coast, two hours northwest of Los Angeles. If Sunnydale was to be identified with an actual college town in this region, Santa Barbara (or perhaps San Luis Obispo) would be the logical choice. In Season Three, the mayor's office was shown with a giant map of "Sunnydale County"; this map was an actual map of Santa Barbara County with a new name pasted over it. Many of the long-range outside shots of the town were actually shots of Santa Barbara. These were especially clear in the widescreen versions of seasons four to seven; some of the Spanish-style buildings were obviously in the heart of downtown Santa Barbara to anyone familiar with the city.
  • In fiction fandom, "Sunnydale Syndrome" is a name given to the semi-common tendency of mundane characters to fail to notice, or to reject as unreal or impossible, the unusual activities taking place under their noses, even when blindingly obvious.[40]
  • The screen used map was little more than background set dressing and does not even show the street Revello Drive (the street Buffy lived on).

Filming locationsEdit

Various southern California locations were used as stand-ins for Sunnydale:

  • The exterior shots of Sunnydale High were of Torrance High School in Torrance, California.
  • The exterior shots and some interior shots of Buffy's home were of an actual home located in Torrance.
  • The exterior shots of the Mayor's office in season three were filmed in Torrance, California.
  • Most of the University of California, Sunnydale scenes were filmed at the University of California, Los Angeles, and in a closed sound stage designed to match the UCLA architecture. Some of the later scenes were filmed at a private business park.
  • The exterior shots of New Sunnydale High were filmed at California State University, Northridge in Northridge, California.

Evidence for a location in the Santa Barbara regionEdit

Sunnydale was located on the California coast, about a two-hour drive northwest of Los Angeles. This was indicated by the following:

  • Buffy had just moved from Los Angeles to a house in Sunnydale, and she complains that she was now "two hours from a Neiman Marcus". This was evidently in reference to the Neiman Marcus store in Beverly Hills.
  • The characters visited other towns on the central and southern coast of California, including Monterey[41] and Oxnard.[42]
  • The characters often drove to Los Angeles,[43][44][45] but rarely refer to the San Francisco Bay Area, suggesting that they were much closer to the former than to the latter. Indeed, when the characters visit the Bay Area, it seems to be a more substantial trip. When Giles visits Oakland, he flies by plane,[46] and Gilroy was a significant ride "up north" on a motorcycle.[4]
  • Sunnydale had been shown on a TV weather map in approximately the same position as Santa Barbara.[47]
  • The Scooby Gang was attacked by the spirits of Native Americans described as Chumash, a tribe local to Santa Barbara and Ventura counties.[3]
  • Lilah Morgan refereed to Sunnydale as being "up the coast" from Los Angeles.[48]
  • Anya stated that the Denny's in Oxnard was exactly half-way between Buffy's and Angel's residences.[49] From the Hyperion Hotel to Oxnard was 59 miles; assuming that Anya was being precise, this would put Sunnydale on the northwest outskirts of Santa Barbara.

Thus, this evidence would place Sunnydale very close to Santa Barbara, California. Since Santa Barbara was never itself been mentioned in the show, it could be surmised that Sunnydale simply was the Santa Barbara of the Buffy universe. Many of the establishing shots of the town were in fact shots of Santa Barbara.

On the other hand, it also was possible that Santa Barbara exists in the Buffy universe, and that Sunnydale was merely located close to it. Joss Whedon stated in November 1998 that "Sunnydale was in fact near Santa Barbara."[50]

Evidence for other locationsEdit

There were also a few indications that associate Sunnydale with other California locations:

  • UC Sunnydale also had a connection to the University of California, Santa Cruz. In several episodes of the fourth season, UC Sunnydale dormitories named Kresge and Stevenson were mentioned. Kresge and Stevenson were names of colleges on the campus of UC Santa Cruz.[51] However, Eve refereed to UC Santa Cruz as her alma mater, so UC Santa Cruz was a distinct school in the Buffy universe.[52][53]
  • Buffy's home was in the 95037 ZIP Code, according to the text shown in a letter.[31] This was the real life ZIP Code for the city of Morgan Hill, which was situated southwest of San Jose, Santa Clara, and Sunnyvale. However, Giles once mentioned he was taking a flight from Sunnydale to Oakland, which would eliminate that possibility.
  • Joss Whedon had remarked that originally he loosely based Sunnydale on Monterey, California, but that it was never intended to be an exact parallel.

Connection to SunnyvaleEdit

Sunnydale's name was very close to that of Sunnyvale, a city in California's Silicon Valley. There was some evidence of a Sunnydale–Sunnyvale connection:

  • In the seventh season, the character Cassie Newton was shown to have created a website. Screenwriter Rebecca Rand Kirshner created an actual website for this character and registered it to "Cassie Newton" at a fake address. The ZIP Code she used was 94086, which was an actual ZIP Code in Sunnyvale.[54]
  • Sunnyvale borders the city of Santa Clara, California whose name bears a resemblance to Santa Carla, another fictional vampire-infested California coastal town and the setting of the film The Lost Boys, from which the term "vamp out", used often in Buffy and Angel, originates.

However, the geography of Sunnyvale makes it a poor candidate for Sunnydale, since it was located more than 300 miles (480 km) north of Los Angeles.

AppearancesEdit

Buffy the Vampire Slayer















Angel








ReferencesEdit

  1. "End of Days"
  2. 2.0 2.1 "The Glittering World"
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Pangs"
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Empty Places"
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Enemies"
  6. "The Harvest"
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Grave"
  8. 8.0 8.1 "School Hard"
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "Lovers Walk"
  10. "I Only Have Eyes for You"
  11. "Graduation Day, Part One"
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 "Once More, with Feeling"
  13. "Real Me"
  14. "Empty Places"
  15. "School Hard"
  16. "Lovers Walk"
  17. "Conversations with Dead People"
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Touched"
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Chosen"
  20. Last Gleaming, Part One
  21. Last Gleaming, Part Two
  22. A Dark Place, Part Two
  23. Harmonic Divergence
  24. Return to Sunnydale, Part One
  25. "What's My Line? Part Two"
  26. "Revelations"
  27. "Help"
  28. "Innocence"
  29. "Conversations with Dead People"
  30. "Hush"
  31. 31.0 31.1 "As You Were"
  32. "Intervention"
  33. "The Killer in Me"
  34. The Long Way Home, Part One
  35. Return to Sunnydale, Part Two
  36. "Dead Man's Party"
  37. "Choices"
  38. "Doomed"
  39. "Get It Done"
  40. "Sunnydale Syndrome". TV Tropes. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  41. "Doppelgangland"
  42. "The Freshman"
  43. "I Will Remember You"
  44. "Sanctuary"
  45. "Orpheus"
  46. "Anne"
  47. "Amends"
  48. "Home"
  49. Reunion
  50. Joss Whedon post on The Bronze posting board, November 22, 1998, archived here.
  51. The horror of it all: Alumna tells tales of vampires, film classes, and a career in television By Barbara McKenna, March 6, 2000, accessed 21-Oct-2012
  52. "Life of the Party"
  53. "Destiny"
  54. "Help"

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